How To Use a Multimeter to Test a Pool Pump Motor - Voltage


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If you are installing a new pool pump or you have to troubleshoot a failing pump, you will generally want to measure the motors supply voltage, its running amperage and its line continuity. This guide explains how to use a multimeter to measure the AC voltage to your pool pump motor.

Step by Step


Step 1

VIEW MULTIMETER - This picture show you the different measurement options available on a standard multimeter.  Each meter is designed for a max Voltage level, specified as Cat I to Cat IV. See the lower right corner of this picture. This meter is designated a Category II level meter designed to handle up to 300 volts. This is sufficient for measuring the two supply voltage used for pool pump motors; 120V or 230V. The different test options are shown around the yellow selection dial. Voltage test options are shown at the top of the dial - DC voltage (shown with a solid bar and 3 dots) is on the left; AC Voltage (shown with a ~ line) to the right. Since pump motors are run on AC Voltage we will want to set the dial to 300 or 200 on the right side. This picture shows it set at 300V since most motors are set up on 230V. If you have 130V supply voltage, you would set the meter to 200V.

Step 2

SELECT TEST POINTS - Voltage to the motor can be measured anywhere between the circuit breaker and the motor terminals One convenient test point is at the output terminals of your pump's timer, shown here. This picture shows the wiring inside the timer box. Three wires come in from the left of the box. Two are labeled INPUT and one GROUND. Generally, but not always, color of the wire is significant. If the two INPUT wires are red and black, they are both load wires and provide 240VAC. If they are white and black, white is neutral and black provides 120VAC. The green wires provide GROUND. The GROUND WIRES SHOULD BE ATTACHED TO THE GROUND SCREW JUST ABOVE TERMINAL "A". IT IS WRONGLY SHOWN IN THE CURRENT PICTURE AS GOING TO "A". There are 5 terminals in the timer box. The left most is A. The other four are labeled 1 to 4. The INPUT wires are connected to 1 and 3. The OUTPUT wires to 2 and 4. The OUTPUT wires are currently wired to the pump. Note: Not all timers are wired the same. This is the terminal configuration for an Intermatic timer. Check your timer to make sure which leads are the output lines.

Step 3

TURN POWER OFF - In preparation for measuring your power, TURN OFF THE POWER TO THE TIMER BOX. There should be a circuit breaker before the timer box.

Step 4

REMOVE TERMINAL COVER - With power off, remove the cover that is over the terminals inside the timer box.

Step 5

TURN POWER ON - To measure the pump's voltage, you will have to turn the power back on.

Step 6

MEASURE SUPPLY VOLTAGE - Set your digital multimeter to 300 VAC and place the meter's probes on the OUTPUT terminals, 2 and 4. It does not matter which probe is placed on which terminal. USE EXTREME CAUTION. These wires have 240V on them. And be careful not to let the probes short out between two adjacent terminals. The meter should read within 10 %  of the nameplate voltage. If the nameplate voltage is 230V, the voltage should read between 207V and 253V.

Step 7

REPLACE COVER - TURN POWER OFF at the breaker and replace the cover.

Step 8

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS - If you have a long wire going to the pump from the timer, you may want to measure the motor's voltage at the motor. If the wire is too long or too small, you may be dropping significant voltage to the motor on the supply line. This drop in voltage can increase your motor's amperage to above its max amperage causing your pump to heat up and fail. To measure voltage at the pump, place the meter's probes on L1 and L2. These terminals are usually labeled on the motor. USE EXTREME CAUTION. These wires have 240V on them.


(1 to 11 of 11)

InyoPools Product Specialist  Posted: 4/23/2017 

Steve - If you have 120 V going to terminals 1 and 3, you should see 240 V across 1 and 3 when the breaker is on. With the red timer lever in the on position, you should see 240 V across terminals 2 and 4 as shown in Step 6. Concentrate on why you aren’t seeing 240V across 1 and 3. This is not a timer or pump issue.

 Posted: 4/21/2017 

I installed the new motor that you shipped to me and it does not work. Checking the voltage at the intermatic timer t104r, I have 120 volts from terminal L 1,2,3,4 to ground, but no reading between L 1 and 3 and L 2 and 4. I am suppose to have 230 volts to motor. Does this mean I only have 120V going to the motor?

 Posted: 2/13/2017 

Step 6 - Not sure which picture you are referring to. The picture in Step 6 does show the meter probes on the output terminals 2 and 4.

Anonymous  Posted: 2/12/2017 

Step 6 States: "Set your digital multimeter to 300 VAC and place the meter's probes on the OUTPUT terminals, 2 and 4."; however, the picture shows the meter's probes on the INPUT terminals 1 and 3. It seems to me that 1 and 3 will give voltage from main breaker to the timer, and 2 and 4 will give voltage from the timer. Is that correct?

InyoPools Product Specialist  Posted: 8/11/2015 

bob - If you are getting 110V from Ground to terminals 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the timer than you should be getting 220V across 1 and 3 and 2 and 4. Sorry for the dumb question, but is your meter set up to read 220V and is the dial set on 220V?

 Posted: 8/11/2015 

I followed this also and I do NOT get any voltage reading from 2 and 4 or from 1 and 3 (I should get 220V), but I get 110 Volts from Ground to L1, L2, L3 and L4

InyoPools Product Specialist  Posted: 7/12/2015 

Testing motor - See our guide on "How To Use a Multimeter to Test a Pool Pump Motor - Winding Resistance" for information on test the motor windings. Also see our series of guide starting with "How To Replace AO Smith Motor Parts - Overview" for information on where a motor part can fail and how to replace the part.

Anonymous  Posted: 7/11/2015 

I don't see how this test the actually pump motor.After all, the guide is titled, "How To Use a Multimeter to Test a Pool Pump Motor - Voltage". This only test the voltage running to the motor but not the motor itself it seems. How can I test the actual motor?

InyoPools Product Specialist  Posted: 12/9/2014 

Voltage measurement - I'm not sure why you are not getting a voltage measure across the output terminals 2 and 4. There are 5 terminals. The left most is ground. The other four are labeled 1-4. Power comes into the timer on terminals 1 and 3 and goes out to the pump on 2 and 4. If you have a 240V timer and the timer is turned ON, you should get 240V across 2 and 4. You also get 240V across 1 and 3.

Anonymous  Posted: 12/6/2014 

Great article. In step 6, I'm not getting any reading but if I test each individual connection I get 120v, any suggestions? Thank you.

Anonymous  Posted: 4/15/2019 

if you are testing each individual terminal to ground what you see is normal 110 + 110 = 220.. Black lead on ground and red on terminal 1 then 2 then 3 then 4. You will see 110 to 122. What the previous answer did not tell you is 220 is two legs of 110 that is why two hot and one nuetral. google t104 timer click images and look for a 240 wiring diagram. It will help. to test the motor properly you need a megger meter