How To Wire A Pool Pump

Written by:  Danny Rhodehamel
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 (3.49 OUT OF 5 STARS ON 38 RATINGS)

Pool pumps are wired to run on either 230V or 115V. Most are run on 230V and are preset at the manufacturers at 230V. If you are going to wire your own pool pump, you must first know what voltage is coming to your pump from the house circuit breaker. Also you must ensure that the electrical supply agrees with the motor's voltage, phase, and cycle and that all electrical wiring conforms to local codes and NEC regulations. If you are unsure of this voltage or are unfamiliar with electrical codes and regulations, have a professional electrician wire your pump for you or at least check your work. Failure to wire the pump correctly can cause electrical shock or can damage your pump motor and void your warranty.

Tips & Warnings

Video

Things You'll Need

Step by Step

Step 1

Measure the voltage on the wires going to your pool pump. See "How To Use a Multimeter to Test a Pool Pump Motor - Voltage". This voltage will be either 230-240V or 115-120V. Pool Pump manufacturers commonly list these as 230V or 115V. Generally you will have three wires coming to your pump. For 230V you will generally have a red, a black and a green wire. The red and black wires are both hot. There is no neutral. The green wire is always ground. For 115V the three wires are generally black (hot), white (neutral) and green (ground).

Step 2

CAUTION: Before you start wiring your pool pump, turn off all power to the pump at the breaker box.

Step 3
how to wire a pool pump

Unscrew the two screws that hold the cover over the back end of the motor. Remove the cover to expose the electrical connectors.

Step 4
pool pump wiring

Screw a metal elbow onto your pool pump at the end of the motor.

Step 5

Run conduit from the metal box to the pump. String your three wires thru the conduit and metal elbow into the end of the motor. Screw the conduit collar onto the end of the elbow. Ensure that your wire size is adequate for the HP rating and distance from the power source. Check your pool pump owners manual for the correct size. Wire sizes generally run 14 AWG for motors up to 1 HP and from 14 AWG to 10AWG for larger motors depending on HP and Voltage.

Step 6
hayward pool pump wiring

If you are wiring for 230V, the three wires coming to the pool pump from the circuit box are red, black and green. In this example for Hayward pool pumps, red will go to the L1 terminal and black will go to the L2 terminal. The green wire will be under the green screw to the far right. In addition there is a black plug with two wires coming from inside the motor , a black wire and white wire with a black tracer line. The black plug is positioned so that the white arrow on top of the 2 prong black plug is pointing at 230V.

Step 7
how to wire a pool pump

For clarification this picture shows the terminals without the wires. The red wire is attached to terminal 1 of Line 1 (L1). The black wire is attached to terminal 3 of Line 2 (L2). The green wire is attached to Ground (GND). The black plug is positioned so that the black wire is attached to terminal 5. For 230V the white wire is not attached.

Step 8

If you are wiring for 115V, the three wires to the pool pump will be black, white and green. Attach the white wire to terminal 1 of Line 1 (L1). Attach the black wire to terminal 3 of Line 2 (L2). Attach the green wire under the Ground screw (GND). The black plug is shifted in position so the the black wire is attached to terminal 4 Line 2 (L2) and the white wire is attached to terminal 5. Note: in this position the white arrow on top of the 2 prong black plug is pointing at the 115V label.

Step 9

Replace the pool pump motor cover and secure it with the two screws.

Step 10
how to wire a pool pump

Lastly your pool pump motor must be bonded in accordance with local electrical code requirements. Use a solid copper conductor, size 8 AWG or larger. Run this wire from from a reinforcing rod to the pressure wire connector provided on the motor housing. Note: In this example the wire coming from the bottom of the picture is going to the pump. The upper wire is going to the heater to bond the heater.

Comments (121 to 160 of 232)

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User: TAMMY

WE HAD SOME SERIOUS ISSUES GOING ON WITH OUR HOT TUB
1ST OFF THE PUMP WAS LEAKING WHEN IT WAS ON HIGH POWER
AFTER CHANGING THE PUMP THE HOT TUB GOES ON TO LOW , THE LIGHT COMES ON, THE HEAT GOES ON & THEN WHEN YOU WANT TO USE THE HIGH PUMP - IT TRIPPS THE WHOLE CIRCUIT FROM THE CIRCUIT PANEL IN THE BASEMENT- GOES PASS THE GHFI PLUG INSTALLED ON THE SIDE OF THE TUB. 2 SPEED 110V 11.5 HP- NEW CIRCUIT BOARD, NEW TERMINALS, NEW PLUG WHAT'S HAPPENING?????

User: Tony

When I turn my pump on, it sounds like it is switching on and off. I have it wired in the 115V configuration.

User: InyoPools

Daniel - For 220V wiring with red and black wires hot and green ground, red to green or black to green should be 110 on a 220 volt circuit. It would be 220 across red and black. A note: If one of your lines has been burned out say after a storm, you can still see 110 across EACH of the separate lines but you will have a 0 reading across the red and black lines.

User: Daniel

So back to someone else's question. Is each leg suppose read 120 v individually, or 230v individually?

User: Bob

I am installing a 1-1/2 hp pump for an above ground pool. Operating voltage is 230,8.7A, 12 ga wire, approx 100 feet from source, L1 and L2 only. I have purchased a 20 amp GFCI breaker. According to the instructions it states 'do not ground neutral on load side of breaker.' Since the motor frame must be grounded to a ground rod and the pool, do I leave the load side neutral disconnected? If so, will the GFCI work properly?

User: InyoPools

djbinva - If you put the meter probes on the red and black leads, it will read around 230V if your source power is 230V.

User: djbinva

What voltage will the black or red line be in a 230V setup? Are they each ~115V when measured(ie 230V combined) or should they each read 230V?

User: InyoPools

Bill - According to the motor manufacturers, there is no difference in efficiency between 230 and 115 if the proper voltage is available. The only savings might be in the wire size to the pump. Wire is rated according to its ability to carry current (amps). Since 230V runs with half the amperage of 115V, the required cable to the pump would be smaller and less expensive.

User: Bill

I have a pool pump that was wired for 115 volts by an electrician. The pool service said it should have been wired at 230 because it will last longer and run more efficiently and use less electric. It can be run either way. Which is correct?
Thanks,
Bill

User: InyoPools

Dan - 1- If you are looking for a 30 amp GFCI, I am assuming that your pump is wired for 115V. If you pump is wired for 230V, you need a 15 amp GFCI. I checked with the local hardware stores and as you said, they do not carry 30 amp GFCIs. They recommended going to an electrical supply house. 2- A switch is more convenient but pulling the plug works.

User: Dan

I have 2 questions. 1- The manual for the pump which is a hayward 1.5 hp superpump. Using a rubber cord and plug to an outlet near the pump. Manual says needs a 30 amp breaker and 10 awg wire. How do you GFCI a 30 amp pump? I cannot find a 30 amp GFCI recepticle or a 30 amp GFCI breaker. 2- does it require a disconnecting means such as a switch?

User: Inyopools

Bill - Yes you can use the bare wire for ground.

User: InyoPools

tonito - When an in ground pool is installed, a grid of metal rebar is laid down in and around it and all electrical equipment (lights, pumps, heater) is grounded to it. See step 17 in How To Build an In-ground Pool. If your pump was stolen, you should see a heavy copper wire coming out of the ground where the pump was.

User: Drbeatle

thank you so much,I was told my pump was burned out but it was just the capacitor
now i have a spare pump motor because the pool company replaced it under warranty

User: Bill

The wire to my timer and pump are black, white, and bare. Can I use the bare as the ground or do I need to buy wire with the green ground?

User: tonito

Well i want to thank the guys with the pictures and instructions i just needed help with tje last picture i dont understand what bonded means or how to connect that wire so if i can get the help i will apreciated im berly starting to lwarn in how to install it for aome bad reason they stole my pool pumps

User: swil33

I have a AO Smith B855 motor and have four wires going to pump (Red, Blk, Grn & White). My motor is two speed (Hi/Lo) and 230V (115 x 2) and the lugs on motor are labeled B, L1, L2 & A. My question is how should it be wired? only the Hi speed runs when I have it wired like B-Wht, L1- Red, L2-Blk & nothing on B.

User: InyoPools

SJBURKS - The Salt Chlorine Generator is connected to the same timer that controls your pump. See our How To Guide on installing a Salt Chlorine Generator: http://www.inyopools.com/HowToPage/how_to_install_an_in_line_salt_chlorine_generator.aspx

User: SJBURKS

How can I wire my salt unit so that it runs with the pump?

User: 

Would like to thank the poster of this, the motor I got showed (wired for 230 from factory) guess what, the jumper was in the wrong position! This was the only place that had a picture of it in the correct position for 230!

User: InyoPools

kc - Yes, you can use a 1 HP motor with the pump housing that came with the original 2 HP motor. However, you will also have to buy a new impeller and possibly new diffuser that match up with a 1 HP motor.

User: kc

Can one use a 1 hp (1 and 1/6 hp ) super pump on a 2 hp model 2615 pump impeller/strainer housing still new in the box which was given to me. I know the inlets are 2 inch but I plan to use a 2 inch to 1 and 1/2 in reducer to match my 1 and 1/2 inch pool lines.
Any problems that might arise using this combo?

User: InyoPools

Beth - Motors can get very hot - almost too hot to touch - especially if the sun is beating down on them on a hot day. A couple of things to check. Make sure to clear any debris away from the base of the motor. Check your line voltage to make sure it's within 10% of 115V or 220V. In some areas it will drop with heavy load. If your pump is far from the breaker box, you may have to look at increasing the wire size to the pump. Also check that the impeller is not clogged with debris. Your pump may be working harder than it has too.

User: Beth

I just replaced my pool pump motor. Motor seems to get very hot in a short period of time. How warm or hot should the pump motor get? And at what point would the pump motor shut down?

User: 

Thanks so much for info...youz guyz are zee best

User: InyoPools

2 red wires - No it does not matter which red wire goes to L1 which goes to L2. They are interchangeable. What is important is to make sure that your pump is set up correctly for the power coming in. If you have 220V from the breaker box, your pump has to be configured for 220V. If 115V, pump must be configured for 115V.

User: 

Let me clarify this...tore out my old 1 hp ao smith and replacing it with a 1 hp hayward super pump. 2 red wires and a green from the old set up. Does it matter where the 2 reds are connected to, ie L1 or L2?

User: InyoPools

Henry - According to the motor mfr rep, it is ok to switch from one speed to the other without turning the motor off, and letting it stop. Air switches on spas change from low to high to off as they progress through the normal cycle. Some pump motors actually start on low speed all the time, regardless of which speed is selected. This reduces the inrush current.

User: Henry

Hi - I just got a two speed pump installed. There is no switch on the pump. The electrician put two separate switches on the wall, one for on/off and one for high/low. My question is, can I harm the pump by switching speeds without first switching the pump off? Is it recommended to switch pump off before switching speeds or it doesn't matter? My electrician suggested switching off before changing speeds, but I am concerned someone else (i.e. pool cleaning service) will come along and change speeds without switching off first.

User: InyoPools

Puckhawg 2 - An AC pump motor cannot be reversed. With minor exception, they all run counter clockwise when you are looking at them from the pump end. CCWPE

User: InyoPools

Puckhawg 1- You have to match your timer to your pump power. If you have a 220V pump, you must use a 220V timer. A 115V pump uses a 115V timer.

User: Puckhawg

Is it also true if the 220 line leads are reversed the motor will run backwards?

User: Scott

OK, thanks for the information about wire either white or black on L1 & L2. I think part of my problem is the run length from the fuse box to my switch (about 100 ft.) 120 volt, 20 amps 12 gauge wire. The reference material states the run should be between 37 to 48 feet max for a 1 HP pump. I measured the voltage without load at the switch: 122 volts (fyi: pump is about 6 feet away from the switch). I turned the pump on and measured about 117 volts under load. I checked again after about 4 hours, same measurement about 117 volts. Seems with-in the normal range. Do you know if the thermal protection switch in the pump automatically kicks the power back on after it cools off or if you have to turn the power off and wait for the thermal switch to cool off before it will start to run again? I think I will be changing and run a 220 circuit. Pump should run cooler. I'm going to make one more check and make sure the terminals and the black plug lines up correctly. Thanks for the help

User: Puckhawg

Thanks - Great site, very informative and extremely helpful. In the process of installing a 2 speed Hayward pump with a switch to go from 110v to 220v. Sounds straight forward on the pump end. Do I need to do anything special the timer?

User: InyoPools

Scott - According to the mfr, the white and black can be swapped between L1 and L2. There is no difference in motor operation. Ground wires are usually bare. You may have to have an electrician look at your pump to see why it's cutting off.

User: Scott

Hello, First thanks for this site. I have a 120 volt line (black) going into the pump plus a white ground and bare ground. In your step 8, I assume the black line is the power 120 volts and be connected to terminal #3 and the white line is the ground and to be attached to terminal #1, move the black plug to point at 115 volt label. Please confirm and additiionally should I change the bare ground wire to an insulated wire? Last item, what happens if the black and white wires are reversed. I believe this is what I did. The pump works for about 10+ hours then kicks off. Does this make sense?

User: InyoPools

Frustrated - If your pump runs again after it cools off, it sounds like you have 120V coming into your pump and not 220V. Your second question: if you do have 220V coming into your pump - both black lines hot - it does not matter which goes to L1 and L2. Recheck your wiring. If you see nothing wrong, have an electrician look at it.

User: InyoPools

CMA 123 - We do not sell most motor parts other than bearings and capacitors. You might be able to match up with something in a hardware store

User: frustrated

just installed an AOSmith 1 HP motor to Hayward pump.
I have two black lines from teh breaker and one green ground. Lines measured 250v and switch inside moter was set to the 230 setting. Turned on and ran fine for five min. and then overheated and seized up. Does it matter which black line goes to L1 or L2? Any other suggestions>

User: InyoPools

Ginger - You may have a break in the electrical wire to you motor. Try replacing that line.

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Tips & Warnings

Make sure that your pump is connected to a GFCI circuit.

Make sure all power to the pump is turned off at the circuit breaker before wiring the pump.

If your are unfamiliar with local electrical codes and regulations have a licensed electrician check your wiring.

Wires will very according to the manufacturer of your pool pump. Please contact the manufacturer if you are unsure of the configuration of your pool pump.


Please Note:

Inyo Pool Products is not responsible for any injury or damaged equipment
while using our guides. Using our guides is doing so at your own risk.
These guides are suggested use of your pool or spa equipment and may vary
depending on which product you are using.