How To Wire A Pool Pump

WRITTEN BY:  Inyo Pools

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Pool pumps are wired to run on either 230V or 115V. Most are run on 230V and are preset at the manufacturers at 230V. If you are going to wire your own pool pump, you must first know what voltage is coming to your pump from the house circuit breaker. Also you must ensure that the electrical supply agrees with the motor's voltage, phase, and cycle and that all electrical wiring conforms to local codes and NEC regulations. If you are unsure of this voltage or are unfamiliar with electrical codes and regulations, have a professional electrician wire your pump for you or at least check your work. Failure to wire the pump correctly can cause electrical shock or can damage your pump motor and void your warranty.

Things You'll Need


Step by Step


Step 1

Measure the voltage on the wires going to your pool pump. See "How To Use a Multimeter to Test a Pool Pump Motor - Voltage". This voltage will be either 230-240V or 115-120V. Pool Pump manufacturers commonly list these as 230V or 115V. Generally you will have three wires coming to your pump. For 230V you will generally have a red, a black and a green wire. The red and black wires are both hot. There is no neutral. The green wire is always ground. For 115V the three wires are generally black (hot), white (neutral) and green (ground).

Step 2

CAUTION: Before you start wiring your pool pump, turn off all power to the pump at the breaker box.

Step 3

Unscrew the two screws that hold the cover over the back end of the motor. Remove the cover to expose the electrical connectors.

Step 4

Screw a metal elbow onto your pool pump at the end of the motor.

Step 5

Run conduit from the metal box to the pump. String your three wires thru the conduit and metal elbow into the end of the motor. Screw the conduit collar onto the end of the elbow. Ensure that your wire size is adequate for the HP rating and distance from the power source. Check your pool pump owners manual for the correct size. Wire sizes generally run 14 AWG for motors up to 1 HP and from 14 AWG to 10AWG for larger motors depending on HP and Voltage.

Step 6

If you are wiring for 230V, the three wires coming to the pool pump from the circuit box are red, black and green. In this example for Hayward pool pumps, red will go to the L1 terminal and black will go to the L2 terminal. The green wire will be under the green screw to the far right. In addition there is a black plug with two wires coming from inside the motor , a black wire and white wire with a black tracer line. The black plug is positioned so that the white arrow on top of the 2 prong black plug is pointing at 230V.

Step 7

For clarification this picture shows the terminals without the wires. The red wire is attached to terminal 1 of Line 1 (L1). The black wire is attached to terminal 3 of Line 2 (L2). The green wire is attached to Ground (GND). The black plug is positioned so that the black wire is attached to terminal 5. For 230V the white wire is not attached.

Step 8

If you are wiring for 115V, the three wires to the pool pump will be black, white and green. Attach the white wire to terminal 1 of Line 1 (L1). Attach the black wire to terminal 3 of Line 2 (L2). Attach the green wire under the Ground screw (GND). The black plug is shifted in position so the the black wire is attached to terminal 4 Line 2 (L2) and the white wire is attached to terminal 5. Note: in this position the white arrow on top of the 2 prong black plug is pointing at the 115V label.

Step 9

Replace the pool pump motor cover and secure it with the two screws.

Step 10

Lastly your pool pump motor must be bonded in accordance with local electrical code requirements. Use a solid copper conductor, size 8 AWG or larger. Run this wire from from a reinforcing rod to the pressure wire connector provided on the motor housing. Note: In this example the wire coming from the bottom of the picture is going to the pump. The upper wire is going to the heater to bond the heater.


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pdf  Posted: 02/05/2016 0:48 AM 

Bought a new century HST110 1 hp motor, connected lines to L1 and L2 green to ground. Plug is set in motor for 230V turned timer to manual and nothing. Checked voltage at motor terminals and its 120 for each terminal. Bad timer? at one point there was no voltage on one leg coming off the timer, but there is now and still not running. took motor to inside and hooked up to 220V direct from breaker box and it ran.

Inyopools  Posted: 01/12/2016 17:06 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

KMH - I not sure how your pump is wired. If initially you measured 230V across the two black lines at the supply side, you should see 230V across the same two black lines that are screwed into L1 and L2 - not 0V. I assume there is nothing between the supply lookup and the pump terminals. If you did have 230V across L1 and L2 and your configuration switch was set at 240 and your pump did nothing, I would say that something was wrong with the wiring inside the pump.

KMH  Posted: 01/10/2016 23:57 PM 

The model UST1072 - A.O. Smith Round Flange 3/4 HP Up Rate Motor.
Measured the voltage on the wires going to the pool pump. The voltage is 230V. There are three wires coming to the pump, two blacks and one green.
Connected one black wire to the L1 terminal and the other black to the L2 terminal (both under the screw). The green wire connected under the green screw. Kept the switch at 230V position. Turned on the pump but nothing happened! No rotation no humming! Measured the voltage L1 to ground it was ~130V, L2 to ground ~130V but L1 to L2 ~0V. Another user (B-Rad) on 4/29/2015 has also reported exactly the same issue. Your answer was that it should measure 240V across L1 and L2. I also wired the pump for 120V and plugged it inside the house to the outlet (not the pump breaker) and the motor runs fine!
It looks like the switch at 240V position (connected to 240V voltage) is not working but the switch at 130V position (connected to 120V voltage) works fine. What now?

Inyopools  Posted: 11/08/2015 10:29 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

Tominboston - I don't know how strict the codes are in your area but most people would just use the same lines coming to the pump. Anyone working on the electrical system should know enough to shut the power off before working on the line and they should have enough electrical knowledge to know that the pump is wired for 220V and that the white line is hot during operation. Some people tag the white wire with red tape as an extra precaution.

Tominboston  Posted: 11/07/2015 15:00 PM 

I would like to replace my single speed 115v pool pump with a variable speed 230v. I have fairly large conductors coming out to the pump now, green, black, and white. I live in MA, am I allowed to reuse these conductors and wire to a 230v breaker ? I was wondering if it was possible to put some color coded electrical tape around the conductors to signify it is a 230v circuit. Or do I need to pull the politically correct color conductors out to the pump? It's about a 100 ft run, so it's not trivial. But I want to do what is right. Thank you for any advice. I assume the existing conductors are more than adequate to handle half the current they do now at 115v, it's just the color code I am concerned about.


inyopools  Posted: 09/25/2015 10:09 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

tatum4hire – The max load rating on your pump is 18.6 which is close enough to trip your 20 amp breaker if you have other issues. You might check the size of your wire between the circuit breaker and the pump. See “Recommended Wire Size”. Also check that your motor is getting enough ventilation and that the debris around the bottom of the pump is cleared out. Other than that, if you have 220 available, I would go to that voltage to reduce current. Remember to change the motor voltage setting to 220V.

tatum4hire  Posted: 09/24/2015 10:43 AM 

I recently moved into an older home and I have a AO SMITH ST 1102 pump on my pool. It is currently wired to run off 115v. It is drawing close to 16 amps during operation. It commonly trips the 20 amp breaker upon startup. I have tested the start capacitor and measures 172 uF - well within the tolerance. I have replaced the 20 amp breaker and it does not help. I am considering that there must be a surge current tripping the breaker. I have 230V available at the sub panel. Should I just switch to 230V and drop the operating current?

Inyopools  Posted: 08/28/2015 10:06 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

Chris- Yes, you cannot wire a 115V only pump to a 230V circuit. It will fry the motor. Either tap off 115V off of the supply power or buy a 230V pump.

Chris  Posted: 08/27/2015 14:26 PM 

Hi, I just bought an AO Smith BN50V pump. I have 230v outlet coming of the breaker. I just noticed the voltage rating on the BN50V is only 115V. Will I ruin this pump if it's connected to a 230V outlet?

Inyopools  Posted: 08/09/2015 10:52 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

myngos211 - A.O.Smith, now Century, stopped making adjustable Switches after November 2001, so chances are your switch is not adjustable. Check your wiring again to make sure you replaced the wires correctly and consider replacing the capacitor again. It may have been damaged by the spark show. See our guide on "How To Replace AO Smith Motor Parts - Overview" for where the wires should go. The guide also provides a link to “How To Replace the Start Switch on an AO Smith Motor”. Note: One of the yellow wire to the Switch has to be tucked away to keep it away from the spinning governor when the pump in on. That may be what caused the sparks.

myngos211  Posted: 08/07/2015 22:11 PM 

Pretty good video. Question for someone. I replaced a bad capacitor with exact and pre-tested new one. Hooked up, tested without motor cap cover on, tested out and it ran fine. Proceeded to secure the capacitor with the bracket and put the motor cap on, hit the on switch and had a sparkfest going on. I checked and found a scraped wire which must've occured when I put the motor cap on. I replaced the wire and to do so I had to temporarily detach the start switch to run the wire behind it. Now when the motor is turned on, the motor turns but the start switch disengages and engages every 1/2 second or so. Is there an adjustment to be made to the stationary part of the switch? Or maybe I lost a leg of power?

Inyopools  Posted: 07/20/2015 11:59 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

Current - You may need a larger wire size between the pump and the circuit box for the higher current but it really doesn't make any difference to the motor which voltage/current you use. On startup, the higher amp draw can cause very brief lamp dimming if 115 is used.

Anonymous  Posted: 07/19/2015 13:14 PM 

What is the best current to run a Hayward Super Pump (energy, best life for motor, etc) if you have both 230 and 115 available?

Inyopools  Posted: 07/07/2015 9:12 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

lee - Generally the pool pump breaker will pop before the mail house breaker is activated and you will not have to reset both.

lee  Posted: 07/06/2015 18:38 PM 

If the breaker for the pool pump pops then do you have to reset the main breaker to the house or just the pool breaker to reset.

Inyopools  Posted: 07/06/2015 16:01 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

Randy - Usually, when a motor cycles on and off, it's because the motor voltage isn't configured the same as the supply voltage. Looking at the black plug, If you have 230V coming to the pump from the breaker, the black plug should only be connected to terminal 5 (see step #7). The right side of the black plug (white wire) is hanging off the end not connected to anything. If you have 115V coming in, the black plug is shifted to the left so that it is plugged into both terminals 4 and 5. You shouldn't have to change the inner wired (under the terminal block). Hope this helps.

Randy  Posted: 07/02/2015 16:12 PM 

First very helpful video you folks made in wiring the Hayward super pump. My question is, I up from a 1 horse to a 1 1/2 horse power super pump. After reading comments, I changed wiring from 12/2 to 10/2. My run is 80ft (less by 4ft) from breaker box to the pool switch. I hook up wires as shown and as you had shown, problem is it cycles on n off. Am going to change out the 30amp breaker its on and also haven't yet but will get a voltage meter to check. I did wire the motor direct, for a test, so from panel to the motor, I know not the wisest but wanted to see the result. Results were the same, cycle on and off. I then hook up the old pump (1 hp)and repeated it, wire direct from panel to pump, it run without a problem. Connections were tight on the motor 1 1/2hp. my 10/2 wire, white on the L1 left side, black on the L2 right side, then green ground screw. The motor wiring, black on the L2 4th and white/black strip on the 5th, far right side.
I saw where someone said they inner changed wire locations, Ive held off on that idea. Thought I'ld seek your input first.
Randy..Culpeper, Va

Inyopools  Posted: 06/27/2015 22:46 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

MARTIMP - Had a customer report the exact same error code. Turned out a couple of lizards [Florida] had gotten into the back of the motor and shorted out the capacitor and power terminal. Might check that first then call Hayward at 866-772-2100 for other suggestions.

Inyopools  Posted: 06/26/2015 9:25 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

adam - Not sure what your switch is doing. Check to see if your new motor is configured to run in 230V mode. If it is and your supply is 115V, you will have to reconfigure your motor for 215V.

MARTIMP  Posted: 06/25/2015 21:41 PM 

HAYWARD POOL PUMP w/ CENTURY 2 GREEN motor and timer, 2sp - 2hp, 230v, brand new installed, wired correctly, runs fine on low, runs for 3 seconds on high speed then kicks off with error message #7 (Overcurrent Fault: Remove power and rotate shaft, wait for max 1hr and take necessary action. It is due to locking of shaft) Shafts spins freely on low so please help with any ideas on a fix? thank you!

adam  Posted: 06/24/2015 12:58 PM 

I just bought a new motor for my inground pool , I have a 120 power source ( I checked with a volt meter) when I put
The switch on the back of the motor to 120..I think it actually says 115 but when I turned the power on the motor sounds like it's ceased ... when I put that switch on 230 mode it runs...should I be concerned with this or is it ok to run it on the 230 mode

Inyopools  Posted: 06/23/2015 15:16 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

krmac - Make sure all your electrical connections are tight. Using a voltmeter, measure the voltage to your motor at the motor to make sure you are getting the correct voltage [I'm assuming you are set up for 115V since it is coming out of the wall]. Make sure your voltage is within 10% of 115V. That can vary during the day depending on your area and power company. Check the gauge of your wiring and length of wire going to your pump. You may be losing voltage in too small a line. See "Recommended Wire Size".

krmac  Posted: 06/22/2015 11:54 AM 

I got a new motor (BV90) for my pump and attached it. From the wall plug, I put the black wire on the yellow wire connection and the red wire on the white wire connection (these are on the end of the motor). The green is attached the ground screw on the end of the motor. I ran it for a day and it was doing great. I turned off the pump, moved my filter to backwash and turned on the pump again, but nothing happened. The motor was hot and i'm concerned that maybe I put the wires to the wrong posts. How can I confirm? What else could be the issue?

Inyopools  Posted: 06/18/2015 9:19 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

Lydiagirl - Here is a link to a 3-Prong Pump Power Cord w/ Twist Lock. You will have to rewire it to the back end of your pump.

Lydiagirl  Posted: 06/16/2015 16:28 PM 

I bought a 1.5hp above ground motor for my pool. My old motor had the twist lock safety plug. My new one does NOT. How can I change the plug on the new one to fit my receptacle. Help!!

Inyopools  Posted: 06/14/2015 18:02 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

Jeff - Your pump should be all right. 115V supply voltage going to a 230V configured motor is much more forgiving than putting 230V into a 115V motor.

Jeff  Posted: 06/14/2015 16:12 PM 

What kind of damage can be done if you forgot to switch the pump to 115? I have a 110 outlet and hooked up my new 1hp Hayward super pump, it ran for 5 minutes before shutting off. The casing was really hot and I finally saw i forgot to switch it to 115. Now it is running fine but don't know if those 5 minutes screwed something up on my new 500 pump.

Inyopools  Posted: 05/17/2015 11:18 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

Mike - There would be no difference. Power to the pump is a product of voltage and current. If you increase the voltage to 230V, your pump cuts the current (amps) in half. Effective power to the pump is the same.

Inyopools  Posted: 05/17/2015 11:11 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

pump/heater wiring - Usually the heater is connected to its own circuit. Was this how the pump and heater were wired before when the old pump was working? Try taking the heater off the pump circuit to see if the pump runs by its self. For wiring instruction, we have a list of owner's manuals by manufacturer. See if your owner's manual is in this list: Owner's Manuals.

Mike  Posted: 05/15/2015 14:20 PM 

Hello, I replaced 1 HP motor. Connected using 115 volts and set switch to 115 as it was. What would be the difference if I made it 230? Would it operate faster? Thank you.

Anonymous  Posted: 05/15/2015 5:50 AM 

I was asked by my neighbor to connect his pool pump for him this year. He has 230v out to the connection box. When I opened up the box, there were two single black wires with wire nuts on them, which matched the two single black wires coming from the pump. I connected them and the ground wire, flipped the switch and nothing happened. I took a meter reading on L1 to ground and L2 to ground. Both showed about 116v so I know the pump had power. As a result we believed the pump was bad. He bought a new one, connected it, and nothing again. Thinking about this, one thing I did notice is that the pump and heater are wired in series. Power goes from the box, through the pump, then through the heater, then coming out of the heater, it connects to a white wire. From black to white in that box I do read 230v. It seems strange to see the the pump and heater wired in series. In a typical pool pump circuit, are the pump and heater wired in series? I have looked for a wiring diagram on the internet, but have not found anything.

Inyopools  Posted: 05/12/2015 10:08 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

majordadto10 - Yes, that terminal board can be replaced. Here is the link to the Terminal Board.

majordadto10  Posted: 05/12/2015 8:59 AM 

Can the terminal on the pump shown on steps 6 and 7 of be replaced?

Inyopools  Posted: 05/11/2015 16:40 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

Webb - This switch is just interrupting the power from the breaker box. One wire goes to L1; the other to L2. There should also be a ground wire (green of bare) that should connect to the green grounding screw in the motor.

Webb  Posted: 05/11/2015 9:47 AM 

I bought your BN25 1hp 115v motor. I would like to add an on/off toggle switch. Where do I connect the 2 wires from the switch terminals to the motor? Thank you.

Inyopools  Posted: 05/09/2015 23:22 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

Geo - If you are wiring the pump for 220V, red goes to L1, black to L2 and the bare ground to the green ground lug. The white wire should not be attached to anything. Put a wing nut on it to be sure it doesn't short out other connections.

Geo.  Posted: 05/08/2015 13:06 PM 

I have four wires, black, red, white, and bare ground. The pool guy hooked it up, L1 red, L2 black, and the white to the ground. When I hooked up the exterior ground, it trips the breaker?

Inyopools  Posted: 05/02/2015 14:59 PM  Inyo Product Specialist

B-Rad - Even with the leads connected to the motor, they should still measure 240 volts across L1 and L2.

B-Rad  Posted: 04/29/2015 11:24 AM 

Okay thanks. I was wondering if it might be showing around zero because the meter was measuring the difference in voltage between L1 and L2 and since they are both 120, there wasn't any difference (120 = 120). Currently each leg shows 120 when measured to ground, but I may need to unhook both lines from the pump and verify that I still see 120 on each when measured to ground.

Inyopools  Posted: 04/29/2015 11:16 AM  Inyo Product Specialist

B-Rad - Something's wrong here. Are you sure you have 220V coming to the pump (two hot line)? If so, then when you measure voltage across L1 and L2, you should see around 240V. L1 to ground ~ 130V. L2 to ground ~ 130V. Voltage across L1 and L2 should never be 0V unless you have no power to the pump motor.