How To Wire A Pool Pump

Written by:  Danny Rhodehamel
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Pool pumps are wired to run on either 230V or 115V. Most are run on 230V and are preset at the manufacturers at 230V. If you are going to wire your own pool pump, you must first know what voltage is coming to your pump from the house circuit breaker. Also you must ensure that the electrical supply agrees with the motor's voltage, phase, and cycle and that all electrical wiring conforms to local codes and NEC regulations. If you are unsure of this voltage or are unfamiliar with electrical codes and regulations, have a professional electrician wire your pump for you or at least check your work. Failure to wire the pump correctly can cause electrical shock or can damage your pump motor and void your warranty.

Tips & Warnings

Video

Things You'll Need

Step by Step

Step 1

Measure the voltage on the wires going to your pool pump. See "How To Use a Multimeter to Test a Pool Pump Motor - Voltage". This voltage will be either 230-240V or 115-120V. Pool Pump manufacturers commonly list these as 230V or 115V. Generally you will have three wires coming to your pump. For 230V you will generally have a red, a black and a green wire. The red and black wires are both hot. There is no neutral. The green wire is always ground. For 115V the three wires are generally black (hot), white (neutral) and green (ground).

Step 2

CAUTION: Before you start wiring your pool pump, turn off all power to the pump at the breaker box.

Step 3
how to wire a pool pump

Unscrew the two screws that hold the cover over the back end of the motor. Remove the cover to expose the electrical connectors.

Step 4
pool pump wiring

Screw a metal elbow onto your pool pump at the end of the motor.

Step 5

Run conduit from the metal box to the pump. String your three wires thru the conduit and metal elbow into the end of the motor. Screw the conduit collar onto the end of the elbow. Ensure that your wire size is adequate for the HP rating and distance from the power source. Check your pool pump owners manual for the correct size. Wire sizes generally run 14 AWG for motors up to 1 HP and from 14 AWG to 10AWG for larger motors depending on HP and Voltage.

Step 6
hayward pool pump wiring

If you are wiring for 230V, the three wires coming to the pool pump from the circuit box are red, black and green. In this example for Hayward pool pumps, red will go to the L1 terminal and black will go to the L2 terminal. The green wire will be under the green screw to the far right. In addition there is a black plug with two wires coming from inside the motor , a black wire and white wire with a black tracer line. The black plug is positioned so that the white arrow on top of the 2 prong black plug is pointing at 230V.

Step 7
how to wire a pool pump

For clarification this picture shows the terminals without the wires. The red wire is attached to terminal 1 of Line 1 (L1). The black wire is attached to terminal 3 of Line 2 (L2). The green wire is attached to Ground (GND). The black plug is positioned so that the black wire is attached to terminal 5. For 230V the white wire is not attached.

Step 8

If you are wiring for 115V, the three wires to the pool pump will be black, white and green. Attach the white wire to terminal 1 of Line 1 (L1). Attach the black wire to terminal 3 of Line 2 (L2). Attach the green wire under the Ground screw (GND). The black plug is shifted in position so the the black wire is attached to terminal 4 Line 2 (L2) and the white wire is attached to terminal 5. Note: in this position the white arrow on top of the 2 prong black plug is pointing at the 115V label.

Step 9

Replace the pool pump motor cover and secure it with the two screws.

Step 10
how to wire a pool pump

Lastly your pool pump motor must be bonded in accordance with local electrical code requirements. Use a solid copper conductor, size 8 AWG or larger. Run this wire from from a reinforcing rod to the pressure wire connector provided on the motor housing. Note: In this example the wire coming from the bottom of the picture is going to the pump. The upper wire is going to the heater to bond the heater.

Comments (1 to 40 of 306)

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User: Inyopools

Mike - There would be no difference. Power to the pump is a product of voltage and current. If you increase the voltage to 230V, your pump cuts the current (amps) in half. Effective power to the pump is the same.

User: Inyopools

pump/heater wiring - Usually the heater is connected to its own circuit. Was this how the pump and heater were wired before when the old pump was working? Try taking the heater off the pump circuit to see if the pump runs by its self. For wiring instruction, we have a list of owner's manuals by manufacturer. See if your owner's manual is in this list: Owner's Manuals.

User: Mike

Hello, I replaced 1 HP motor. Connected using 115 volts and set switch to 115 as it was. What would be the difference if I made it 230? Would it operate faster? Thank you.

User: 

I was asked by my neighbor to connect his pool pump for him this year. He has 230v out to the connection box. When I opened up the box, there were two single black wires with wire nuts on them, which matched the two single black wires coming from the pump. I connected them and the ground wire, flipped the switch and nothing happened. I took a meter reading on L1 to ground and L2 to ground. Both showed about 116v so I know the pump had power. As a result we believed the pump was bad. He bought a new one, connected it, and nothing again. Thinking about this, one thing I did notice is that the pump and heater are wired in series. Power goes from the box, through the pump, then through the heater, then coming out of the heater, it connects to a white wire. From black to white in that box I do read 230v. It seems strange to see the the pump and heater wired in series. In a typical pool pump circuit, are the pump and heater wired in series? I have looked for a wiring diagram on the internet, but have not found anything.

User: Inyopools

majordadto10 - Yes, that terminal board can be replaced. Here is the link to the Terminal Board.

User: majordadto10

Can the terminal on the pump shown on steps 6 and 7 of http://www.inyopools.com/HowToPage/how_to_wire_a_pool_pump.aspx be replaced?

User: Inyopools

Webb - This switch is just interrupting the power from the breaker box. One wire goes to L1; the other to L2. There should also be a ground wire (green of bare) that should connect to the green grounding screw in the motor.

User: Webb

I bought your BN25 1hp 115v motor. I would like to add an on/off toggle switch. Where do I connect the 2 wires from the switch terminals to the motor? Thank you.

User: Inyopools

Geo - If you are wiring the pump for 220V, red goes to L1, black to L2 and the bare ground to the green ground lug. The white wire should not be attached to anything. Put a wing nut on it to be sure it doesn't short out other connections.

User: Geo.

I have four wires, black, red, white, and bare ground. The pool guy hooked it up, L1 red, L2 black, and the white to the ground. When I hooked up the exterior ground, it trips the breaker?

User: Inyopools

B-Rad - Even with the leads connected to the motor, they should still measure 240 volts across L1 and L2.

User: B-Rad

Okay thanks. I was wondering if it might be showing around zero because the meter was measuring the difference in voltage between L1 and L2 and since they are both 120, there wasn't any difference (120 = 120). Currently each leg shows 120 when measured to ground, but I may need to unhook both lines from the pump and verify that I still see 120 on each when measured to ground.

User: Inyopools

B-Rad - Something's wrong here. Are you sure you have 220V coming to the pump (two hot line)? If so, then when you measure voltage across L1 and L2, you should see around 240V. L1 to ground ~ 130V. L2 to ground ~ 130V. Voltage across L1 and L2 should never be 0V unless you have no power to the pump motor.

User: B-Rad

Hello,

When I measure the voltage for L1 & L2, I typically leave the hot wires connected at the terminals on the pump and measure individually between L1 & ground and then L2 & ground. Is it possible that if one of the hot wires (say on L2) isn't getting power from the breaker that I could still be measuring 120 volts because L2 is somehow (within the motor) connected with L1? Should I be completely removing the 2 hot wires from the motor prior to measuring voltage? Also, am I correct in saying that using the voltmeter to measure between L1 and L2 should show approximately 0 volts?

Thanks in advance!

User: Inyopools

B-Rad - Sounds good to me. L1 and L2 are common designators on a motor. As long as one wire is going to L1 and the other to L2, it doesn't matter that they don't go thru a terminal.

User: B-Rad

Hi!

I'm set up for 230v, and have my 2 hot (110v) wires connected directly to the screws. In other words there was no wire terminal in which I could slip onto terminal 1 and 3. Thus I have one hot wire connected to the screw on L1 and another hot wire connected to the screw on L2. Is this okay?

thanks!

User: Inyopools

Ken - Where is the other black wire going to? Is it unconnected? Just an extra wire. Is the white wire being used as the ground wire? It sounds like you can connect the black wire on the on/off switch [going to the pump?] to the black wire on the circuit breaker all right. I'm just not clear on the purpose of the other wire. Also if the red wire is connected to the switch and it also is connected to the power side of the circuit breaker, connecting the black wire to the switch would make this a 220V hookup and your pump should be configured for 220V. Have someone measure the voltage on the existing lines so that you can duplicate that hookup.

User: 

The underground galvanized 1/2" pipe that houses the wires connecting the pool on/off switch to the main circuit breaker has corroded...exposing four, # 14 solid copper wires. Pipe and wires are 51 years old. Nevertheless,the pool pump runs with no apparent wiring or connection difficulty. The above ground galvanized pipe is O.K.Only the below ground level galvanized pipe required removal.
To replace only the underground pipe required cutting four wires on both ends.(two places). 1 wire is coded red, 1 wire is coded white and 2 wires are coded black.
My question only involves 2 black wires in the underground pipe.
Does it matter which of the 2 black wires in the underground pipe get reconnected to the 2 black wires protruding from the above ground piping?(both pipe ends).Can the black wire on the on/off switch end be switched to the black wire connecting to the black wire on the main circuit breaker end?

Ken





User: Inyopools

m_farrell - You can plug this motor directly into a 110V outlet and you will have to switch the motor to 115V if it is currently configured for 230V. This switch is under the electrical cover.

User: m_farrell

Hi - I just bought a second Hayward in ground pump to use for a sump line for excess ground water behind the liner emergencies. I am going to install a pigtail or whip so I can plug this directly into a 110 outlet. Is that possible and if so does that mean I switch from 220 to 115 inside the cover? Thanks so much for your help.

User: Inyopools

Rick S - Sounds like your motor is wired correctly. I assume you have 230V supply power. Filters commonly run in the range of 5-15 psi when new or recently cleaned. And pump can run hot to the touch in some cases. See our guide on "How To Fix a Hot Pump Motor" for other considerations.

User: Rick S

I replaced my old 1 speed pump with a new Flotec 2 speed pump pre-wired for 230 operation. I attached a 110 lead to F-1 and the other 110 lead to F-2. Green wire attached to ground. Pump runs and is circulating water but will not build pressure greater than about 6 psi on the gauge. Motor also runs very hot to the point it is nearly too hot to touch the motor housing. I'm afraid to leave it running.

User: Inyopools

Eric - I can't tell from your description how your system is wired, but if your look at our guide on "How To Wire a PE153 Digital Timer to a 2-Speed 230V Motor", you might get a better understanding of how 2-speed wiring works. Step 1 shows you the four connections for a 2 speed motor: "L1" goes to one side of the High Speed switch; "A" goes to one side of the Low Speed Switch; "L2" is the common wire to the other side of both the High and Low Speed switches; "G" is for ground. Now look at Step 3. It shows "L2" as the common line going to High and Low. It looks like if the wires to "L1" and "L2" were not as shown, the High and Low switches would not work. Try switching the wires to "L1" and "L2". Note: your wire colors are probably different from these.

User: Eric

Hello,

I just replaced the two speed circulation pump on my hot tub. I labeled all of the connections and know that I didn’t make a mistake hooking it back up. When I turn it on it runs fine. However, when the system calls for circulation, the default speed is high when it should be low. The motor is single phase 115V and has four wires from the control panel, white, black, red and green. If I reverse the red and black will this change the default speed? I saw in other posts that changing red and black don’t make a difference but that was for two phase.

User: Inyopools

Jon - The internal wiring does not have to match up with the external colors. If you have two terminals labeled L1 and L2, put the red wire from the house on one of these terminals and the black wire on the other. It does not matter which goes to which. Before you wire the motor, make sure that the supply power from the house matches the motor power configuration. If supply power is 220V, the motor should be set to receive 220V. If supply is 115V, motor should be set for 115V.

User: Jon

I have a new Oentair 2Hp pump; model # 2F345218. Replacing an old one, but the wiring looks a little different than the last purex Trton 2hp pump. The wiring terminals look the same, but not the wires. I'm trying to wire the new on, but it doesn't match Your diagram exactly. The pump came with the internal white wire already connected to one of the prongs on the L2 terminal. I have a red, black and green (ground) coming from the house. The green is obvious but I don't know where to connect the red and black. Also I can see an internal black wire in the pump,but it's connected internally. Please help. Thanks!

User: 

Really very helpful. Answered all of my questions in identifying how to wire my pump.

User: wantabmacgyver

This was a lot help of for novice, saved us hundreds of dollars

User: Inyopools

Colin - When you change speeds, you are actually switching between two circuits. One of the wires in this circuits is common to both circuits and that may be what they are referring to as the “common wire”. Here's a link to an example of how to wire a two speed pump to a 2 speed timer: http://www.inyopools.com/HowToPage/how-to-wire-a-pe154-digital-timer-to-a-2-speed-230v-motor.aspx . In step three, the "common wire" is attached to L2.

User: Inyopools

Joe - I don't see any information in our system on your pump. Usually the motor label has a picture on the motor label that shows how to change from 230 to 115 but they may not have started that til after your pump was built. If you haven't done so already, I would suggest looking on the internet for information on your specific model.

User: Colin

I have a Pentair 2 speed 115v pump with 3 terminals - common, high and low. The wiring diagram with my controller (TightWatt2) is telling me to connect the load to the common and the neutral via a switch to high and low. Am I reading this correctly? I always thought common was neutral?
Thanks

User: joe

Your blog is wonderful and very helpful.
however I have a problem that maybe your readers might have some insite into.
I have a 1997 jacuzzi fet pump model R7CJC with an emerson motor C%%CXHRT that was never used. it has a 230/225 switch inside that I moved from the preset 230 to the 115. There are 2 prongs on the 115 that are vacant. There is no diagram other than one that shows two wires and the switch and to "line" Connectors. there is a note that the instructions should be read before changing voltage. However I dod not have any documents. I tried the 230 volts first and the motor works, but I can not get the 115 volt to work. I understand you do not have such old documents, but you readers might Any orther helpful suggestions? please

User: Inyopools

Rick B – Have someone check the voltage going to you pump and make sure it is the same as what your pump is set up for. There should be instructions on the motor label that show you how to set your pump’s voltage.

User: RickB

I replaced my Hayward Super Pump with a Century Centurion (PacFab-Challenger). The wires from my pole house are Red, White and Green. The wires from the PacFab are Black, Black and White. In order of wires from source to pump, do I connect the Red to Black, White to Black and Green to White (Ground Wires)? Is my wiring 230 or 115? Need help, pool is getting greener by the day. (New Orleans HEAT)

User: Inyopools

Matt - The only difference between impellers for a given pump is the diameter. And you can't go by the diffuser. The same diffuser can be used for several impellers. Look at the HP and SF values on the label of your motor. Multiply them together to determine your motor's real or total HP (THP). Find your pump on our web site and look under replacement parts for the impeller that should be used with that THP. Or give us a call at 877-372-6038 and we will walk you through it. Another thing to look at: if you have an above ground pool, make sure the extension cord is heavy enough to carry the pump's current.

User: Matt

Thanks for the quick reply. I used an impeller that was recommended by our local pool supply house. It looked to be the same diameter as the previous impeller and fit perfectly with the diffuser. I assume that diameter is the concern? Or is there a different impeller vane pattern that I need to look at?

User: Inyopools

Matt - Check to make sure your new impeller is not too large. If you have the wrong impeller and it is larger than specified, your pump's motor will be trying to move more water than it is capable of handling and will overheat. If you selceted the impeller listed for a full rated 1.0 motor and you have a 1.0 uprated motor, you may have the wrong impeller.

User: Matt

I just changed out the impeller and diffuser on a PacFab pump, reinstalled and had the motor overheating. I replaced the motor with a brand new unit and it overheated in about a hour. All suction and discharge lines look clean and nothing has changed with the pool valving since the impeller was swapped out. Motor is AO Smith 1 HP, 230V single phase. All wiring and voltage is good. The previous owner did not have the bonding wire attached, could that cause the motor to overheat?

User: Inyopools

Jeff - The motor label should have instructions in one of the corners on how to change the motor's voltage. Not sure that is your problem though. If your motor is set at 220V and your supply voltage is 115V, your motor would generally cycle on and off every 5 minutes. Make sure you replaced the motor with one of equivalent total HP. Your motor's "real" HP is determined by multiplying its HP by its Service Factor (SF) – see motor label. For example a motor with HP = 1.0 and SF = 1.5 has a real HP of 1.5. A motor with HP = 1.0 and SF = 1.0 has a real HP of 1.0.

User: Jeff

I bought a centurion BPA450 - 230/115..and it barely pumps water on 115v. I had an old 1hp gen run on 115v for 20 years and it pumped great till it finally died.
You mentioned that most generators are PRE-SET to 220v...
How do I change it to accept 115v....

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Tips & Warnings

Make sure that your pump is connected to a GFCI circuit.

Make sure all power to the pump is turned off at the circuit breaker before wiring the pump.

If your are unfamiliar with local electrical codes and regulations have a licensed electrician check your wiring.

Wires will very according to the manufacturer of your pool pump. Please contact the manufacturer if you are unsure of the configuration of your pool pump.


Please Note:

Inyo Pool Products is not responsible for any injury or damaged equipment
while using our guides. Using our guides is doing so at your own risk.
These guides are suggested use of your pool or spa equipment and may vary
depending on which product you are using.